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Letter Particles With Keyboard

  1. const Key = {
  2.   LEFT: 37,
  3.   UP: 38,
  4.   RIGHT: 39,
  5.   DOWN: 40,
  6.   disabled: false
  7. };
  8.  
  9. const keyDown = {};
  10.  
  11. function setupKeys() {
  12.   const alph = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'.split('');
  13.   const keys = {};
  14.   const aKey = 65;
  15.   alph.forEach((letter, i) => {
  16.     const idx = aKey + i;
  17.     keyDown[idx] = false;
  18.     Key[letter.toUpperCase()] = idx;
  19.   });
  20.  
  21.   keyDown.allLetters = () => {
  22.     const lettersDown = alph.filter(
  23.       letter => keyDown[Key[letter.toUpperCase()]]
  24.     );
  25.     return lettersDown;
  26.   };
  27.  
  28.   document.addEventListener('keydown', e => {
  29.     e.preventDefault();
  30.     if (!Key.disabled) {
  31.       keyDown[e.which] = true;
  32.     }
  33.   });
  34.  
  35.   document.addEventListener('keyup', e => {
  36.     e.preventDefault();
  37.     keyDown[e.which] = false;
  38.   });
  39. }
  40.  
  41. setupKeys();
  42.  
  43. // later:
  44.  
  45. const dots = {};
  46. let id = 0;
  47. function dot(letter = '') {
  48.   const el = document.createElement('div');
  49.   el.innerHTML = letter;
  50.   const size = 20;
  51.   const scale = 1 + Math.random() * 2;
  52.   const vel = (2 - scale / 2) / 4;
  53.   let x = innerWidth / 2 - size;
  54.   let y = innerHeight / 2 - size;
  55.   let vx = Math.random() * 6 - 3;
  56.   let vy = Math.random() * 6 - 3;
  57.   let life = 0;
  58.   let maxLife = Math.floor(50 + Math.random() * 30);
  59.   Object.assign(el.style, {
  60.     position: 'absolute',
  61.     left: 0,
  62.     top: 0,
  63.     transform: `translate3d(${x}px, ${y}px)`,
  64.     borderRadius: '500px',
  65.     background: 'red',
  66.     width: `${size}px`,
  67.     fontFamily: 'sans-serif',
  68.     textAlign: 'center',
  69.     color: 'white'
  70.   });
  71.  
  72.   id++;
  73.  
  74.   let props = {
  75.     el,
  76.     id,
  77.     right() {
  78.       vx += vel;
  79.     },
  80.     left() {
  81.       vx -= vel;
  82.     },
  83.     down() {
  84.       vy += vel;
  85.     },
  86.     up() {
  87.       vy -= vel;
  88.     },
  89.     run() {
  90.       life++;
  91.       if (life === maxLife) {
  92.         document.body.removeChild(dots[props.id].el);
  93.         delete dots[props.id];
  94.       }
  95.       x += vx;
  96.       y += vy;
  97.       vx *= 0.999;
  98.       vy *= 0.999;
  99.       el.style.transform = `translate(${x}px, ${y}px) scale(${scale}) `;
  100.     }
  101.   };
  102.   dots[id] = props;
  103.   document.body.appendChild(el);
  104. }
  105.  
  106. function loop() {
  107.   keyDown.allLetters().forEach(letter => {
  108.     dot(letter);
  109.   });
  110.  
  111.   for (let i in dots) {
  112.     dots[i].run();
  113.   }
  114.  
  115.   if (keyDown[Key.LEFT]) {
  116.     for (let i in dots) {
  117.       dots[i].left();
  118.     }
  119.   }
  120.  
  121.   if (keyDown[Key.DOWN]) {
  122.     for (let i in dots) {
  123.       dots[i].down();
  124.     }
  125.   }
  126.  
  127.   if (keyDown[Key.RIGHT]) {
  128.     for (let i in dots) {
  129.       dots[i].right();
  130.     }
  131.   }
  132.  
  133.   if (keyDown[Key.UP]) {
  134.     for (let i in dots) {
  135.       dots[i].up();
  136.     }
  137.   }
  138.  
  139.   requestAnimationFrame(loop);
  140. }
  141. loop();
  142.  
  143. const info = document.createElement('div')
  144. info.innerHTML = 'click here, then type letters and use arrow keys'
  145. document.body.appendChild(info)

A demo showing how to use the keyboard snippet from yesterday. Also added a function to obtain an array of all currently pressed letter keys

// animation // javascript // keys // math // random // tricks // ui

Gravity Dots

  1. d = document
  2. b = d.body
  3. b.style.margin = 0
  4. b.style.background = 'black'
  5. r = (v = 1) => Math.random() * v
  6.  
  7. with(
  8.   b.appendChild(
  9.     d.createElement`canvas`
  10.   ).getContext`2d`) {
  11.  
  12.   onresize = () => {
  13.     canvas.width = innerWidth
  14.     canvas.height = innerHeight
  15.   }
  16.   onresize()
  17.  
  18.   fillStyle = 'red'
  19.  
  20.   dot = (
  21.     x = r(innerWidth),
  22.     y = r(innerHeight),
  23.     mass = 10, sr = r(8) + 4, 
  24.     R = sr,
  25.     dx, dy,
  26.     dist, vx = .2, vy = 0) => { 
  27.  
  28.     return () => { 
  29.       fillStyle = '#005eb0'
  30.       R = sr
  31.       if (r() < .005) {
  32.         vx = r() * 4 - 2
  33.         R = sr * 2
  34.         fillStyle = 'white'
  35.       }
  36.  
  37.       dx = innerWidth / 2 - x
  38.       dy = innerHeight / 2 - y
  39.       dist = Math.sqrt(dx * dx + dy * dy)
  40.       dist *= dist
  41.       vx += dx / dist * mass
  42.       vy += dy / dist * mass
  43.  
  44.       x += vx
  45.       y += vy
  46.  
  47.       beginPath()
  48.       arc(x, y, R, 0, 6.29)
  49.       fill()
  50.     }
  51.   }
  52.  
  53.   const dots = []
  54.   for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) dots.push(dot())
  55.   loop = () => {
  56.     fillStyle = 'rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2)'
  57.     fillRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height)
  58.     dots.map(d => d())
  59.   }
  60.   setInterval(loop, 16)
  61. }

Some speed coded dots that gravitate to the center of the screen and occasionally change direction.

Random Trick

  1. // multiply math random by another math random:
  2. const value = Math.random() * Math.random() * 10;
  3.  
  4. // This makes it less likely that `value` will be 10
  5.  
  6. // the more times you multiply, the less likely you will be to reach
  7. // the maximum potential value
  8. const value = Math.random() * Math.random() * Math.random() * 10;

I use this a fair amount when creating artwork with code. I’ll usually use a seeded random though for more control.

I was thinking about different icons I might use in a node based programming environment to denote this use of random and after a little futzing around created this series of histograms:

  1. function rand(n = 1, f = 1) {
  2.   let value = 1;
  3.   for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
  4.     value *= Math.random();
  5.   }
  6.   // fixing the value so that it fits
  7.   // nicely as a key in the hash table
  8.  
  9.   // hash = {
  10.   //   0.2: 5,
  11.   //   0.9: 8,
  12.   //   etc...
  13.   // }
  14.   return value.toFixed(f);
  15. }
  16.  
  17. function histo(n = 1, f = 2, off, iter = 1500, size = 70) {
  18.   const vals = {};
  19.   const canvas = document.createElement('canvas');
  20.   const c = canvas.getContext('2d');
  21.  
  22.   canvas.width = canvas.height = size;
  23.   canvas.style.margin = '.5em';
  24.   document.body.appendChild(canvas);
  25.  
  26.   for (let i = 0; i < iter; i++) {
  27.     const randNum = off ? off - rand(n, f) : rand(n, f);
  28.     if (vals[randNum] == null) {
  29.       vals[randNum] = 1;
  30.     } else {
  31.       vals[randNum]++;
  32.     }
  33.   }
  34.  
  35.   c.fillStyle = '#ccc';
  36.   c.fillRect(0, 0, size, size);
  37.   c.strokeRect(0, 0, size, size);
  38.   for (let i in vals) {
  39.     const x = parseFloat(i) * size;
  40.     c.beginPath();
  41.     c.moveTo(x, size);
  42.     c.lineTo(x, size - vals[i]);
  43.     c.stroke();
  44.   }
  45. }
  46.  
  47. histo();
  48. histo(2);
  49. histo(3, 2, 1);
  50. histo(5, 2, 1);
  51. histo(6, 2, 0, 500);

ASCII Circles (Bresenham Fun)

  1. // some circles made of text
  2.  
  3. const cols = 50;
  4. const rows = 50;
  5. const sym = '.';
  6. const body = document.body;
  7.  
  8. Object.assign(body.style, {
  9.   userSelect: 'none',
  10.   fontFamily: 'Courier, monospace',
  11.   position: 'fixed', 
  12.   width: '100%',
  13.   height: '100%',
  14.   margin: 0
  15. });
  16.  
  17. const el = body.appendChild(
  18.   document.createElement('span')
  19. );
  20. el.innerHTML = sym;
  21.  
  22. Object.assign(el.style, {
  23.   position: 'absolute',
  24.   left: '50%',
  25.   top: '50%',
  26.   wordWrap: 'break-word',
  27.   cursor: 'pointer'
  28. });
  29.  
  30. const charSize = el.getBoundingClientRect().width;
  31. const elWidth = charSize * cols;
  32. el.style.display = 'block'
  33. el.style.width = `${elWidth}px`;
  34.  
  35. const info = body.appendChild(
  36.   document.createElement('div')
  37. );
  38.  
  39. Object.assign(info.style, {
  40.   background: '#fff',
  41.   padding: '4px',
  42.   position: 'absolute'
  43. })
  44. info.innerHTML = 'click/tap and hold for different fx';
  45.  
  46. function resize() {
  47.   const scl = Math.min(
  48.     1.23, 
  49.     Math.min(innerWidth, innerHeight) / elWidth * .93
  50.   );
  51.   el.style.transform = `translate(-50%, -50%) scale(${scl}, ${scl * .55})`
  52. }
  53. addEventListener('resize', resize);
  54. resize();
  55.  
  56. const size = cols * rows;
  57. const pix = sym.repeat(size);
  58. el.innerHTML = pix;
  59.  
  60. let cells = pix.split('')
  61. const blank = cells.concat();
  62.  
  63. function setSym(x, y, col) {
  64.   const idx = x + y * cols;
  65.   if (cells[idx] != null) {
  66.     cells[idx] = col;
  67.   }
  68.   return setSym
  69. }
  70.  
  71. const grad = '::;|0UU888NN';
  72. function circ(shooter) {
  73.   let x = Math.round(Math.random() * cols);
  74.   let y = Math.round(Math.random() * rows);
  75.   const rad = Math.round(
  76.     shooter ? Math.random() * 2 :
  77.       Math.random() * Math.random() * 13 + 1
  78.   );
  79.  
  80.   const sym = shooter ? '#' : grad.charAt(rad % grad.length);
  81.   let speed = rad / 10 + .1;
  82.   let dir = Math.random() * 2 - 1;
  83.   return () => {
  84.     drawCircle(x, y, rad, sym, shooter);
  85.     y += speed;
  86.     if (shooter) x += speed * 3 * dir;
  87.     if (y > rows + 10) y = -14;
  88.   }
  89. }
  90.  
  91. const circs = [];
  92. const NUM = 40;
  93. for (let i = 0; i < NUM; i++) {
  94.   circs.push(circ(Math.random() > 0.5))
  95. }
  96.  
  97. let down;
  98. document.addEventListener('mousedown', () => {
  99.   down = true;
  100. });
  101. document.addEventListener('mouseup', () => {
  102.   down = false;
  103. });
  104. document.addEventListener('touchstart', () => {
  105.   down = true;
  106. });
  107. document.addEventListener('touchend', () => {
  108.   down = false;
  109. });
  110.  
  111. let tweak;
  112. let tweakChoice;
  113. let tweakChance = 0.4;
  114. const clear = () => cells = blank.concat();
  115.  
  116. function draw() {
  117.   if (!down) {
  118.     tweak = false;
  119.     tweakChoice = Math.random();
  120.     clear();
  121.   } else {
  122.     if (tweakChoice < tweakChance) {
  123.       tweak = true;
  124.       clear();
  125.     }
  126.   }
  127.  
  128.   circs.forEach(circ => circ());
  129.   el.innerHTML = cells.join('');
  130. }
  131.  
  132. // 60fps is too fast, so use 30ms interval
  133. setInterval(draw, 30);
  134.  
  135. function hLine(xp, yp, w, col) {
  136.   for (let i = 0; i < w; i++) {
  137.     setSym(xp + i, yp, col);
  138.   }
  139.   return hLine;
  140. }
  141.  
  142. // bresenham circle
  143. function drawCircle(xp, yp, radius, sym = '@', isFilled) {
  144.   if (isFilled && tweak) sym = '';
  145.  
  146.   xp = parseInt(xp, 10);
  147.   yp = parseInt(yp, 10);
  148.   radius = parseInt(radius, 10);
  149.   let balance = -radius,
  150.     xoff = 0,
  151.     yoff = radius;
  152.  
  153.   while (xoff <= yoff) {
  154.     const p0 = xp - xoff;
  155.     const p1 = xp + xoff;
  156.  
  157.     const p2 = yp + yoff;
  158.     const p3 = yp - yoff;
  159.     const p4 = yp + xoff;
  160.     const p5 = xp + yoff;
  161.     const p6 = xp - yoff;
  162.     const p7 = yp - xoff;
  163.  
  164.     if (isFilled) {
  165.       const w0 = xoff + xoff;
  166.       const w1 = yoff + yoff;
  167.  
  168.       hLine
  169.         (p0, yp + yoff, w0, sym)
  170.         (p0, yp - yoff, w0, sym)
  171.         (p6, yp + xoff, w1, sym)
  172.         (p6, yp - xoff, w1, sym);
  173.  
  174.     } else {
  175.       setSym
  176.         (p1, p2, sym)
  177.         (p0, p2, sym)
  178.         (p0, p3, sym)
  179.         (p1, p3, sym)
  180.         (p5, p4, sym)
  181.         (p6, p4, sym)
  182.         (p6, p7, sym)
  183.         (p5, p7, sym);
  184.     }
  185.  
  186.     // never been able to find the original 
  187.     // source for the below condition 
  188.     // more info here: https://actionsnippet.com/?p=492
  189.     if ((balance += xoff++ + xoff) >= 0) {
  190.       balance -= --yoff + yoff;
  191.     }
  192.   }
  193. }

This is a bit of a longer snippet that uses the Bresenham circle drawing algorithm to draw some circles with text. I recommend looking at it with the fullscreen button.

I like to do this:

  1. hLine
  2.   (p0, yp + yoff, w0, sym)
  3.   (p0, yp - yoff, w0, sym)
  4.   (p6, yp + xoff, w1, sym)
  5.   (p6, yp - xoff, w1, sym);

Make a function return itself, so that if you need to call it many times without having to repeat the function name. Because this isn’t a common style it is generally frowned upon, I’m always tempted to use it at work for some reason… maybe next April fools.

30% Chance Math.random()

  1. // 30%
  2. if (Math.random() < .3) {
  3.   // 30% chance this will run
  4.   console.log('30%');
  5. } else {
  6.   console.log('nope');
  7. }

I do this all the time when creative coding. I usually use a seeded random number generator instead of Math.random. It’s very useful to have something happen X% of the time.

Let’s run this a few times and look at the results. Click/tap try it out.

  1. for (let i = 0; i < 111; i++) {
  2.   if (Math.random() < .3) {
  3.     console.log('30%');
  4.   } else {
  5.     console.log('nope');
  6.   }
  7. }

Scroll through the results of the console window.

snippet.zone ~ 2021-23 /// {s/z}